Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: Countertransference management and effective psychotherapy: Meta-analytic findings.

In this article, we review the history and definition of countertransference, as well as empirical research on countertransference, its management, and the relation of both with psychotherapy outcome. Three meta-analyses are presented, as well as studies that illustrate findings from the meta-analyses. The first meta-analysis indicated that countertransference reactions are related inversely and modestly to psychotherapy outcomes (r = −.16, p = .02, 95% CI [−.30, −.03], d = −0.33, k = 14 studies, N = 973). A second meta-analysis supported the notion that countertransference management factors attenuate countertransference reactions (r = −.27, p = .001, 95% CI [−.43, −.10], d = −0.55, k = 13 studies, N = 1,065). The final meta-analysis revealed that successful countertransference management is related to better therapy outcomes (r = .39, p

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Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: A meta-analysis of the association between patients’ early perception of treatment credibility and their posttreatment outcomes.

Patients’ perception of treatment credibility represents their belief about a treatment’s personal logicality, suitability, and efficaciousness. Although long considered an important common factor bearing on clinical outcome, there have been no systematic reviews of the credibility–outcome association. The present study represents a meta-analysis of the association between patients’ credibility perception and their posttreatment outcomes. To be included, articles published through August, 2017 had to (a) include a clinical sample, (b) include a therapist-delivered treatment of at least 3 sessions, (c) include a measure of patients’ own early treatment credibility perception, (d) include at least 1 posttreatment mental health outcome not explicitly referenced as a follow-up occasion, and (e) report a statistical test of the credibility–outcome association. The meta-analysis was conducted on 24 independent samples (extracted from 19 references) with 1,504 patients. The overall weighted effect size was r = .12, p

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Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: A meta-analysis of the association between patients’ early treatment outcome expectation and their posttreatment outcomes.

Patients’ outcome expectation (OE) represents their belief about the mental health consequences of participating in psychotherapy. A previous meta-analysis of 46 independent samples receiving the treatment of at least 3 sessions revealed a significant association between more optimistic baseline, or early treatment, OE and more adaptive posttreatment outcomes (weighted r = .12 or d = .24; Constantino, Glass, Arnkoff, Ametrano, & Smith, 2011). The present study represents an update to that meta-analysis. To be included, articles published through June 2017 had to (a) include a clinical sample, (b) include a therapist-delivered treatment of at least 3 sessions, (c) include a measure of patients’ own OE, (d) include at least 1 posttreatment mental health outcome not explicitly referenced as a follow-up occasion, and (e) report a statistical test of the OE−outcome association. The updated meta-analysis was conducted on 81 independent samples (extracted from 72 references) with 12,722 patients. The overall weighted effect size was r = .18, p

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Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: The real relationship and its role in psychotherapy outcome: A meta-analysis.

Although writing about the real relationship has existed from the beginnings of the “talking cure,” it is only in recent years that empirical research has focused on this phenomenon. The real relationship is the personal relationship between patient and therapist marked by the extent to which each is genuine with the other and perceives/experiences the other in ways that are realistic. The strength of the real relationship is determined by both the extent to which it exists and the degree to which it is positive or favorable. In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on the association between the strength of the real relationship and the outcome of psychotherapy. Summed across 16 studies, this meta-analysis revealed a moderate association with outcome (r = .38, 95% confidence interval [.30, .44], p

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Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: Therapist empathy and client outcome: An updated meta-analysis.

Put simply, empathy refers to understanding what another person is experiencing or trying to express. Therapist empathy has a long history as a hypothesized key change process in psychotherapy. We begin by discussing definitional issues and presenting an integrative definition. We then review measures of therapist empathy, including the conceptual problem of separating empathy from other relationship variables. We follow this with clinical examples illustrating different forms of therapist empathy and empathic response modes. The core of our review is a meta-analysis of research on the relation between therapist empathy and client outcome. Results indicated that empathy is a moderately strong predictor of therapy outcome: mean weighted r = .28 (p

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Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: Meta-analysis of the prospective relation between alliance and outcome in child and adolescent psychotherapy.

In the youth treatment literature, the alliance has been defined and measured as a consensual or collaborative bond. In this article, we review varied definitions of the alliance, enumerate its frequent measures, and present clinical examples. We provide a meta-analytic review on the relation between the therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome in child and adolescent psychotherapy. In particular, this review only includes prospective studies of youth therapy that used an explicit measure of alliance. The meta-analysis of 28 studies revealed a weighted random effect size of r = .19 (k = 28, N = 2419, p

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Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: Cohesion in group therapy: A meta-analysis.

Cohesion is the most popular of the relationship constructs in the group therapy literature. This article reviews common definitions of cohesion, the most frequently studied measures, and a measure that may clarify group relations using two latent factors (quality and structure) to explain common variance among frequently used group relationship instruments. We present the results of a meta-analysis examining the relation between group cohesion and treatment outcome in 55 studies. Results indicate that the weighted aggregate correlation between cohesion and treatment outcome was statistically significant, r = .26, z = 6.54 (p

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Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: The alliance in adult psychotherapy: A meta-analytic synthesis.

The alliance continues to be one of the most investigated variables related to success in psychotherapy irrespective of theoretical orientation. We define and illustrate the alliance (also conceptualized as therapeutic alliance, helping alliance, or working alliance) and then present a meta-analysis of 295 independent studies that covered more than 30,000 patients (published between 1978 and 2017) for face-to-face and Internet-based psychotherapy. The relation of the alliance and treatment outcome was investigated using a three-level meta-analysis with random-effects restricted maximum-likelihood estimators. The overall alliance–outcome association for face-to-face psychotherapy was r = .278 (95% confidence intervals [.256, .299], p

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